As one of the major contributors to Greenhouse Gas emission, the transport sector is given particular attention to reduce its emission of Greenhouse Gas emissions. The European Commission released several ambitious targets to develop the use of renewables in transport.
The Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) promotes the use of biofuels in transport by advising Member States to ensure that a minimum proportion of biofuels and other renewable fuels is placed on their markets. Indicative targets of 5.75% of energy content of all petrol and diesel for transport purposes placed on Member States market by 31 December 2010.
The Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) sets a mandatory 10 % target of renewable energy in the transport sector by 2020. In order to be accountable within the 2020 targets, biofuels are required to comply with strict sustainability criteria set in the Directive. These are twofold:
- The assurance that raw materials cultivated for biofuels shall be obtained in accordance with strict land management criteria
- Greenhouse Gas emission savings of at least 35% compare to fossil fuels.
Certain raw materials are exempted from traceability and certification requirements due to their specific nature. Biofuels produced from waste and residues benefit additionally from additional incentives. Indeed, waste and residue-based biofuels count double towards the 10% targets.
In 2015, the iLUC Directive that amended the RED and FQD set an indicative target of 0.5% by 2020. Each Members States should set up a national non-binding target of 0.5% of second generation biofuels by 2020. This 0.5% is double counted and would count 1% towards the 10% target of renewable in transport by 2020.